Aviation Safety Research after four years of extensive research, development and engineering, has developed an innovative and                      comprehensive 'Business Method Plan for Deicing Aircraft' for improved deicing efficiency. The innovative element of the plan being: 

1. The improvements in deicing efficiency are due to a specifically designed unilateral system for the method and practices of deicing aircraft for all cold climate airports of the United States.  Specifically designed and engineered are three unimagined U.S. patented deicing apparatuses to facilitate our innovative perspective plan for an economical and expedient airports Fixed Base of Operation for aircraft ground deicing. This improved Method and Practices Plan by design, prioritizing passenger flight crew safety, by employing a state-of-the-art ice detection, operations communication and recording system, for a practical and simplified practices of certifying an aircraft airworthiness before takeoff, replacing the current incomprehensible practice, whereby the Captain and First Officer, alone are charged with the responsibility and burden of an impossible task of a FAA conceivably inappropriate regulatory article “Tactical and Visual Checks of the Aircraft”, usually peering out of the port and starboard  cabin windows to inspect the wings for ice buildup and virtually undetectable black ice accumulation.

2. The revitalization and economical re-construction of an airports deicing pads designated deicing area, a fixed base of operation located at the head of the takeoff runway for ‘Threshold Deicing’. Threshold Deicing as defined by the ‘Airport Cooperative Research Program, Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration’, in conjunction with the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, ACRP Report 45 ‘De/Anti-Icing Optimization’ Fact Sheet 53 dated April 2011, states the benefits of threshold deicing to include: “Limiting the need for the application of thickened anti-icing fluids as a result of reduced time from the end of deicing until actual aircraft takeoff. This would also result in reduced glycol being dispensed over the airport during the takeoff run”. “Reduced the need for repeat deicing as holdover times are less likely to be exceeded”. “Aircraft ground deicing activities at threshold deicing sites have been proven to be operationally effective and provide numerous benefits to the aircraft operator community”.  Regulatory Considerations: “Safe and efficient aircraft operations are a primary importance in the development of any aircraft deicing facility”FAA advisory circular (AC) No: 150.5300-14B Design of the aircraft deicing facility “Discusses size, sitting, environmental runoff mitigation, and operational needs for a deicing facility and how to maximize deicing capabilities of maintaining maximum safety and efficiency. Eliminating the practice of airport apron aircraft deicing requiring the use of Glycol type IV anti-icing fluid will consequently result in the abandonment of the FAA extensive holdover time guidelines for the application of anti-icing aircraft”.

3. Our research claim is to virtually eliminate all flight cancellations and delays while maintaining regular flight departure intervals, every 1.5 to 2 minutes, accommodating the busiest of international airports, during winter weather events of 45 mi./h wind velocity with freezing rain or moderate ice pellets in small hail, (FAA N 8900.374 (subparagraph 8e2)d)) the guidance on small hail intensity has been expanded HOTs allowance times, In weather conditions ice pellets and small hail allowance times all applicable”. (subparagraph c) Freezing Fog: Freezing fog can accumulate on aircraft services taxi”. Stage Two of the overall ‘Threshold Deicing’ design locates the aircraft ready for departure at the junction of the tarmac takeoff runway where 4 stationary apparatuses, fitted with articulating booms will perform the final defrosting, drying and heating of the entire aircraft surface utilizing 24 jet fuel fired, 220°F forced hot air heaters at a CFM velocity equivalent to 27 miles per hour. This operation will continue uninterrupted until clearance for takeoff. The completely dry and heated aircraft at this point will provide a certain amount of natural anti-icing protection as the aircraft advances down the runway, in weather events of light freezing rain and snow, and will be monitored by advanced infrared technology, displayed in the aircraft cockpit via a wireless video feed to a mobile device, such as a laptop with Wi-Fi network capability. This invaluable assentation by the cockpit flight crew of the condition of the aircraft may result in aborting the takeoff run.

4. Stage I: Initial deicing/cleaning designated area of operation Located adjacent to the tarmac, near the head of the runway.  Each of the 6 deicing pad stations depicted, consisting of 4 stationary deicing apparatus units each, one per quadrant of the aircraft surface. The WingTenderTM apparatus is fitted with a custom manufacture in line heater, capable of producing a liquid temperature of 190°F at a flow rate of 75 gallons per minute. The heated liquid is delivered to the aircraft surface through a 28 foot articulating boom, fitted with a Patented five fan nozzle manifold, generating an 8 foot wind high-pressure liquid stream over the aircraft at a distance from the surface of 3 to 4 feet with a temperature drop of less than 9°F. The nozzle manifold is fitted with 2 jet fuel fired, 220°F forced hot air heaters at a CFM velocity equal to 27 mi./h, one preceding the nozzles removing heavy snow and or loose ice, while preheating the aircraft surface well above the outside air temperature. N8900.374, Revised FAA Approved Deicing Program Updates, Winter 2016-2017 (subparagraph 7a1)a)) “The more heat an aircraft surface absorption, the longer service temperature will remain above the freeze point of the liquid”. The second heater following the liquid application nozzles, will continuously dry the aircraft surface of residual liquid, preventing the re-formation of ice and frost during the deicing operation. While heating the aircrafts aluminum, titanium, surfaces including composite carbon fiber (laminated with a layer of copper mesh to provide protection from lightning strikes, which is also an excellent heat conductor). Once the aircraft is free of ice contamination, the hot water application will desist while the 2 hot air heaters continue heating the aircraft surface to a minimum of 100°F above the outside air and precipitation temperatures before proceeding to stage two, providing sufficient natural anti-icing protection Holdover Time of a minimum of 4 minutes, in weather events of freezing rain, snow or heavy fog. The aircraft will then proceed from Stage I to Stage II, located in close proximity, in an elapsed time of less than 4 min. from the furthest deicing pad, depicted as Alpha pad. Prescribing this method, will eliminate the necessity for the use of deicing fluid, therefore this method also consequently eliminates the necessity of the use of the FAA complexing Deicing Fluid Holdover Time Tables for Type I and Type IV Glycol. FAA-ACRP Report 14, Fact Sheet 9, 1- Hot Water Deicing: “Hot water deicing provides a specific opportunity to reduce or eliminate the volume of aircraft deicers applied by using hot water for deicing operation in lieu of deicing agents. Technology: hot water deicing requires the appropriate technology today and distribute the water at the prescribed temperature (at least 60°C or 140°F) Because this practice does not provide holdover protection, it is employed as the first step of the two-step process, it has been successfully implemented by aircraft operators at a range of commercial airports”. SAE International, 2017 Standard AIR6284, Forced Air Equipment for the removal of frozen contaminant. Rationale: “Forced air utilizes an air stream to remove the accumulation of frozen contamination from the aircraft with or without fluid. Forced air can provide the option of fluid assisted heated fluid ( hot water only in this case )  in conjunction with the air stream for removal of heavier frozen contamination”.

 5. Economic and Environmental Impact: Aviation Safety Industries development of a FAA SPONSORED ACRP ‘Research and Development’ recommended snow and ice control plan for a hazardous chemical free deicing method, will save the aviation industry, not only the cost of millions of gallons of glycol purchases annually, but also the high cost of the EPA required containment and recovery.

​​​​Airport Winter Operations Snow and Ice Control Plan


Henry Thomas Doyle, Research Director
Leslie Milici, Chief Research 

Aviation Safety Research

ASR Associate Membership & Affiliates

 Aircraft Deicing Innovations

Mona  Tate,  Research Assistant

Airports Council International-NA, Committee Member
Transportation Research Board, Affiliate Member
National Academies of Sciences, Affiliate Member
​Airport Cooperative Research Program, Committee Member
National Business Aviation Association, Member 
​Society of Automotive Engineers-International, Member

Moving Research To Reality, A Game Changing Development​​​​​​